The spectral radiance of vacuum ultraviolet (UV) target is of crucial significance to plenty of researches including deep space exploration and spacecraft damage test. Two types of test systems and methods for vacuum UV light sources were studied. Through the research of test method for vacuum UV spectral radiance, a corresponding test system was developed, which included vacuum UV standard light source, optical imaging system, light splitting module, vacuum UV detector module, vacuum chamber and data processing system. According to the direct measurement method and the comparative method, the spectral radiance of deuterium lamps was tested and analyzed, the influencing factors and the relative index error of vacuum UV spectral radiance were discussed, and the accurate measurement of vacuum UV spectral radiance in the five wavelength ranges of 121.2 nm, 135.6 nm, 160 nm, 180 nm, 200 nm at 0.01 μW/cm2
·nm·sr~1 μW/ cm2
·nm·sr was realized. The repeatability of the measurement is 0.001 34, which shows that the proposed test system can realize the test of vacuum UV signal.